Instant noodles are dried or precooked noodles fused with oil, and often sold with a packet of flavoring. Dried noodles are usually eaten after being cooked or soaked in boiling water for 3 to 5 minutes, while precooked noodles can be reheated, or eaten straight from the packet. Instant noodles were invented by Momofuku Andō of Nissin Foods, Japan.
Instant noodles were first marketed by Momofuku Ando, a Taiwanese man who was born in southwestern Taiwan when the island was under Japanese colonial rule, in Japan on August 25, 1958under the brand name Chikin Ramen. Another milestone was reached in 1971 when Nissin introduced the Cup Noodles, instant noodles in a waterproof polystyrene cup to which boiling water could be added to cook the noodles. Further innovations included adding dried vegetables to the cup, creating a complete instant soup dish.
According to a Japanese poll in the year 2000, instant noodles were the most important Japanese invention of the century. Karaoke came second, with the Compact Disc only coming in fifth. As of 2008, approximately 94 billion servings of instant noodles are eaten worldwide every year. China consumes 45 billion packages of instant noodles per year, or 48% of the world, Indonesia consumes 14 billion, Japan 5.1 billion. Per capita, South Korean people eat the highest number of instant noodles, 69 packages per year.
Instant noodles are not only popular with college students, they can also be an economic indicator. In 2005, the Mama Noodles Index was launched to reflect the sales of Mama Noodles, the biggest instant noodle manufacturer in Thailand. The index was steady after the recovery from the East Asian financial crisis, but sales jumped by around 15% in the first seven months of 2005 on a year-to-year basis, which was regarded as a sign of recession. People could not afford more expensive foods, hence the increase in the purchase of instant noodles, as instant noodles are seen as an inferior good.
Instant noodles are often criticized as being unhealthy or junk food. A single serving of instant noodles is high in carbohydrates but low in fiber,vitamins and minerals. Noodles are typically fried as part of the manufacturing process, resulting in high levels of saturated fat and/or trans fat. Additionally, if served in an instant broth, instant noodles typically contain high amounts of sodium. The current U.S. Recommended Dietary Allowance of sodium for adults and children over 4 years old is 2,400 mg/day. Some brands may have over 3,000 mg of sodium per package in extreme cases. Instant noodles and the flavoring soup base also contain high amounts of monosodium glutamate.
The most recent controversy concerns dioxin and other hormone-like substances that could theoretically be extracted from the packaging and glues used to pack the instant noodles. As hot water is added, it was reasoned that harmful substances could seep into the soup. After a series of studies were conducted, various organizations requested changes in the packaging.
A recent concern on consumption of fried foods is the possible presence of oxidation products from poor maintenance of the oil. This can be a concern if the cooking oil is not maintained at the proper temperature or changed as often as necessary. Proper production standards minimize these risks, and these oxidation products can be present in any improperly fried foods, and are suspected to pose various health risks.
Instant noodles worldwide
Instant noodles have become a popular food in many parts of the world, though they have undergone changes in flavor to fit local tastes.
In Argentina, instant noodles are gaining popularity, and can be found in most major cities in supermarkets. The brand is usually Sapporo Ichiban. The problem is basically that the cost is still high (about 0.90 dollars). Due to the recent Chinese immigration wave, specialized Chinese supermarkets offer a wide variety of ramen brands. The Brand Maruchan can also be found now at Disco and Coto supermarkets, coming in different flavors such as shrimp, beef, chicken or cheese.
While the most popular brand of instant noodles in Australia was Maggi noodles (pronounced ma-jee) for some time, many other brands have emerged and taken over the market. For Cup-Noodles the most popular brand is Fantastic Noodles. For packet Noodles there are 2 popular choices, Indomie Mi Goreng(Fried Indonesian noodles served without broth), Nissin’s Demae Ramen, and Nong Shim’s Shin Ramyunserved with broth, although (due to a strong advertising campaign) Maggi noodles continue to be highly popular despite being amongst the highest-priced packet noodles. Almost every popular brand of Korean, Japanese and Indonesian noodles are available in Australian supermarkets and convenience stores, due to the cultural mesh of Asian cuisine (due to geographical location) in Australian life.
Instant noodles are not widely popular in Belgium, and are expensive. The westernized, most common brand is called “Aiki Noodles”.
A typical feature in both France and Belgium is the ‘rejection’ of such foreign foods in favour of traditional European meals. Instant foods in Belgium are generally unpopular. The supermarket chain Delhaize has its own brand of Westernized instant noodles, but sales overall are still low. Authentic Japanese and Thai instant noodles can be found only in Asian specialty stores, and in very limited quantity in some supermarkets.
For a long time the main manufacturer was Nissin Miojo (to an extent that, in Brazil, the most common name for instant noodles is “miojo”, although the manufacturers usually call them “lámen” or “l’amen”), but a lot of other companies, such as Maggi and Nestlé also offer this product. There is a lot of variants, such as “Lámen Cremoso” (which has a creamy sauce) and “Lámen Hot” (with pepper), as well as yakisoba and spaghetti.
The major brands available in Canada are Sapporo Ichiban, Knorr and Mr. Noodles. In fact, in some areas the noodles may be referred to only by the name “Ichiban” or as “Mr. Noodles”, originating from the brand name. These main-brand packages generally only contain one flavor pouch. Other brands may include a small package of sesame oil. Korean made brands such as Nong Shim are readily available in most large grocery stores and in some major cities, brands imported from Europe are available. Asian markets found in larger cities typically carry dozens of different brands and varieties. Due to the large South Asian population in some major cities, Maggi is also a popular brand. The term kimchi is also popular, in reference to imported Korean ramen; this term is particularly popular in the West Coast cities of Vancouver and Victoria.
China is a fast-growing market for instant noodles. The market is focusing on higher-end products, generally costing more than 1 RMB. The top three brands in this category dominate more than 85% of the market; for the lower end (those below 1 RMB) the leading five hold around 60% of the market share.
The dominant brands in the Chinese market are:
- Ting Yi (aka Master Kong or Kang-shi-fu), owned by the Taiwanese Tingyi (Cayman Islands) Holding Corporation and managed with a Japanese strategic alliance partner Sanyo Food, the third player in Japanese market. Master Kong now is probably the largest brand with a business scope extended to Beverage (RTD) and Bakeries.
- Uni-President (aka President or Tong-Yi), a PLC listed in Taiwan. Like Master Kong, it used to have its own businesses in Beverage and Bakeries as well. However, the company recently formed a JV partnership with Hwa-Long and Nissin on the beverage front. Uni-President’s home market is in Taiwan but the company is now expanding aggressively in mainland China.
- Hwa-Long (Chinese Dragon), a local company allied with Nissin. Given that relationship, Hwa-long has long been regarded as Nissin’s agent in the world’s largest consumer market. Recently Hwa-long, Nissin, and Uni-President formed a partnership in Beverage business and would like to collectively compete against Master Kong, still considered the leading brand in the industry.
- Bai-xiang (白象, i.e. White Elephant), a local company spun-off based on a former SOE and now still enjoys a strong local customer base. It is a leading brand in lower-end segments in terms of volume.
Virtually all supermarkets sell instant noodles of some sort, but they tend to be westernized and come in foam containers, costing upwards of 10 kroner (2 dollars). Ethnic stores and specialty shops offer the most popular alternative, Yum Yum, with prices ranging from 4-6 kroner, but 3 for 10 offers are nearly universal. Its popularity has been sufficient to become a genericized brand name in its own right. Mama, another brand from Thailand, is the second most popular Eastern-type brand, but has a much smaller market share, despite its popularity in its homeland. Also most Danish supermarket instant noodles contain E601 as a flavor enhancer.
In Ethiopia, the most popular instant noodles is Indomie brand with its various flavors. It is picked first from the shelves because of its international popularity and affordable price. It is referred to as “Lehulum Tesmami” meaning “Suitable For All” in the Amharic language.
Noodles are ubiquitous in all urban grocery stores and supermarkets. Packet noodles are the norm while cup noodles, often pricier, are seldom available outside ethnic food shops. Yum Yum and Mama cost about half a euro while Koka’s larger portion of non-fried, no trans fat, no preservatives higher-end offering comes in at about euro a piece.
Instant noodles were relatively unknown in Germany until the 1990s, from which they have continually gained in popularity. There are two types of ramen in Germany: the first, generally called Instant-Nudeln (instant noodles) tends to be a mild, Westernized version, in flavors such as chicken, vegetable, beef and button mushroom. The second type is actually called Ramen, and it is quite similar to traditional ramen as it is known in Asia. German Ramen was originally considered an ethnic food and was only available in specialty stores. Since the mid-1990s, however, it has become available at German supermarkets and can usually be found on the instant-food aisle. The most popular brands areYum Yum, Nissin Cup Noodles and Maggi.
Cantonese people have a long history of cooking yi mein, an early form of instant noodles invented in the Qing Dynasty. Modern instant noodles were publicly introduced as Doll Noodles in the late 1960s by Winner Food Products Ltd which was bought by Nissin in 1984; and that term has since become a synonym for instant noodles (irrespective of brand) in Hong Kong and Southern China. Demae Itcho is another famous brand in local market.
India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh
The most popular brand in the 3 countries is Maggi by Nestlé. Also in the market are players like Top Ramen Smoodles and ‘Cup Noodles’ manufactured by Indo-Nissin Ltd, Ching’s Instant Noodles, AA Nutritions’s Yummy, and Wai-Wai owned by the Chaudhary Group from Nepal and India. Flavors are more oriented toward local flavors, such as Masala, chicken tikka etc.
Maggi is regarded in popular culture as a 2 minute noodle. Due to increasing health consciousness of the consumers, Nestle introduced an instant noodles made of whole wheat grain flour called Atta Noodles. Other variant include instant rice noodles in various flavors also. Top Ramen is also very popular among consumers. The preferred flavor of Top Ramen is known as “Curry Smoodles”; its flavorings mimic a basic curry, including onion, garlic, coriander, and a curry masala. Top Ramen manufacturers refer to their instant noodles as “smoodles”, to differentiate from other instant noodles. A package sells for 10-12 rupees in India and 16 rupees in Pakistan; South Asian markets in North America and Australia have also started selling it. Indo-Nissin foods also manufactures “Cup Noodles”, a proprietary food with various flavors like “Spicy Vegetables” and “Tangy Chicken” to name a few.
Smith & Jones and Ching’s secrets are also popular new brands of instant noodles in India.
India also has a huge demand for unflavored instant noodles with brands like Bambino and Ching’s dominating the market.
The first widely known instant noodle in Indonesia is “Supermi” introduced in 1970s. Later several brands of instant noodle was introduced – “Indomie” and “Sarimi”. The three brands produced by Indofood Sukses Makmur, the largest instant noodle producer in the world – indirectly owned by Sudono Salim one of Indonesian wealthiest tycoons. Indofood is also the owner of Bogasari Flour Mills, the largest flour mill company in the world.
Currently, Indofood Sukses Makmur has a market share about 70% of Indonesian instant noodle production. In 1999 the figure was about 90% market share. The recent decline in market share was triggered by the introduction of “Mie Sedaap” in 2003 – the strongest contender of Indofood market domination. “Mie Sedaap” was produced by Wings Food.
Indonesians prefer noodle with a strong flavor. The usual flavor of Indonesian instant noodle are Chicken curry, Onion and Chicken, Beef Meatball, and Chicken Soto (Indonesian traditional soup). In the past, Indomie tried to produce 30 different flavors reflecting the various traditional dishes from all over Indonesia, but the product was discontinued after disappointing results, which indicated that Indonesians have limited preference when it comes to noodle flavor.
A dry-type instant noodle is also popular in Indonesia. Most of the market share is owned by the product Indomie Mi Goreng. The dry-type noodle designed to replicate Indonesian traditional dishes of Mi Goreng or fried noodle.
The strong local preferences also contribute to the low volume of sales for Japanese and other foreign instant noodle in Indonesia. The Korean brand of hot and spicy instant noodles are the closest to Indonesian taste and has the largest market share of foreign instant noodle in Indonesia.
By far the most popular brand of instant noodles in Ireland are Koka Noodles]. They are distributed by the Boyne Valley Group for the Irish market.
Japan is the country of origin for instant noodles. Instant noodles remain a “national” light food. The average Japanese person eats 40 packs of instant noodles per year.After the invention by Taiwanese-Japanese Momofuku Andō in 1958, instant noodles became very common in Japan. In 1970s, makers expanded their flavors, such as shio (salt ramen), miso (-ramen), or curry. From 1980s, makers also added dried toppings such as shrimp, pork, or eggs. This, however, made instant noodles more expensive, and their popularity decreased for a while. Today, instant noodles are divided into two groups, one being “traditional” cheap (¥150 to ¥200) noodles with few toppings, another being expensive (¥200 to ¥500) noodles with many toppings, often pouch-packed. Like other countries, there are various kinds of instant noodles produced, including ramen, udon, soba, yakisoba, pasta and so on.
Major makers in Japan are:
- Nissin Food Products famous brands include Chicken Ramen and Cup Noodles, 40.4% market share (2005)
- Tōyō Suisan , nicknamed Maruchan, brands include Akai Kitsune and Midori no Tanuki, 19.2%
- Sanyō Foods , Sapporo Ichiban, 11.5%
- Myōjō Foods , Charumera, 9.9%
- Acecook , Super Cup, 8.3%
Malaysia and Singapore
The most well-known brand of instant noodles is Maggi (mag-gee, as opposed to the Australian pronunciation), and this brand is practically synonymous with instant noodles. The brand is so dominant that “eating Maggi” is taken to mean eating instant noodles no matter what the brand is. Curry (“Kari”) is the local favorite flavor. Others are chicken, [tom yum, and asam laksa are most common. . Maggi instant noodles from Malaysia is a highly sought item for overseas Malaysian and a must bring for most of them when traveling overseas. Both soup-based and "dry" variants without broth are readily available. Indomie, Nissin, Cintan and Mamee brands of instant noodles are also well-loved by both Malaysians and Singaporeans.
Though instant noodles are usually eaten at home, they are also becoming increasingly popular as restaurant or even cafe meals, especially in Hong Kong-themed "cha chan teng" cafes and "Mamak food shops - "Maggi Goreng" is the usual example. These meals are usually modified according to the chef's taste and include minimal monosodium glutamate.
In recent years, instant noodles manufacturers have tried to introduce low-MSG seasonings, as well as new processes that do not require frying for the noodles, and have introduced new flavors such as chilli crabs and seafood.
The Apollo noodle is very popular in the small island of Mauritius. It comes in different flavors: shrimp, curry, chicken and vegetable. It is now available in the regional countries namely Madagascar, Reunion Island and also in France, Ireland, United Kingdom and Australia where there is a large Mauritian community.
Instant noodles are gaining popularity in Mexico, where it is often seen as a snack-grade food and enjoyed in typical "Mexican" flavors such as lime or chili, often combined with shrimp. These flavors are available in the United States, particularly in areas with Mexican and Mexican-American populations.
Also a common practice is buying a meat-flavored cup of noodles and seasoning it with fresh limones (Mexican lime) and "Salsa Valentina" (a famous type of snack-food hot sauce). The "cup o' noodles" is referred to as: "Sopa Huevona" (Lazy Soup) and is available virtually in almost every store and "changarro" (convinience store) in Mexico.
This kind of soup was introduced in the 1980s by the Maggi Corporation as "Instant Maggi Ramen" (marketed in a small plastic bag with artificial flavors), though the Noodles didn't gain the nowadays popularity until the cup-o-noodles was introduced in 1990 by the Maruchan Company. Today , many local brands , like "La Moderna" and "Herdez" have developed their own cup-o-noodles, adapting flavors like "fideos", "sopa azteca" and "mole de olla".
The fairly large Indonesian community (as a result of ex-colonies) has generated Indonesian supermarkets known as a Toko (Supermarket). Various brands of instant noodles are sold through these outlets, including Indomie Mi Goreng and Thai varieties like Yum Yum. Other supermarkets stock the Maggi brand, the Unox brand and some of the cheaper alternatives. Both cup and packet varieties are available and have been quite well assimilated as the Netherlands has a 'quick snack' food culture of its own.
In Nigeria, Indomie brand, manufactured by Dufil Prima Foods Plc, is the most popular instant noodles brand in this market. Since its introduction in 1988, Indomie has had a remarkable impact on the Nigerian culinary landscape. It is currently eaten in most households across the country. By 2008, nine other brands of noodle had appeared on the market.
Affirming Indomie’s hold on the market, Christopher Ezendu, a distributor at the popular Oke-Arin market on Lagos Island, reported that other brands in the noodles business are aspiring to be like the market leader.
The estimated market size according to the WINA (World Instant Noodle Association) in the year 2007 was 250 Mn Ctns, making Nigeria the 13th largest consumer of instant noodles in the world. The supply has grown to about 574 Mn Ctns in 2009 with a total production capacity of 746 Mn Ctns but is still a far cry from the estimated demand of 2.1 Bn Ctns of noodles annually .
Instant noodles were first introduced to North Korea by way of food aid from South Korea in the 1990s. In 2004, over 600,000 boxes of Shin brand Ramyeon were sent to North Korea as part of aid relief program when Ryongchŏn train station exploded, injuring many North Korean civilians. However, insider sources state that most Ramyeon sent as part of aid relief program has been sold in North Korean black markets instead, making its way to Pyongyang. North Korean visitors to China also frequently purchase South Korean ramyeon from Chinese stores, where Shin Ramyeon is known as "Korean Tangmi Ramyeon".
Indigenous production of Ramyeon in North Korea began in 2000. The first Ramyeon brand was known as "kkoburang kuksu", which literally means curved noodles in Korean. Afterwards, a joint venture by a North Korean and Hong Kong-based company began producing "chŭksŏk kuksu", which literally means "instant noodles" in Korean. Ramyeon are popular amongst North Korean elites who can afford them and live in Pyongyang and Nampo. In contrast to hot and spicy South Korean Ramyeons, North Korean Ramyeon have much milder and brothier-type flavor.
In Norway, every supermarket sell instant noodles of some kind. The most sold brand is the Yum Yum! brand imported from Thailand and is sold at the supermarket chain Rema 1000 or in ethnic stores in the big cities. Another popular brand is the Norwegian brand Mr. Lee. Yum Yum has like Denmark often a 3 for 10 sale, or being sold in 5-packs for 14 NOK. Mr. Lee is often more expensive and costs from 6-9 NOK, with a Small cup for 12 a medium for 16 and a big for 20.
In Peru the Maruchan brand ramen have been sold for a long time, as the only brand that provided this product. But, a few years ago, the Aji-released Aji-no-men ramen in a wide range of flavors, including beef, pork, pineapple, lemon-lime and soggy-muffin.
Instant noodles are usually eaten with rice or sinangag (garlic rice) and daing (dried fish). Some people also buy instant noodles for quick merienda or snacks in their offices or schools, and also for breakfast because of its fast preparation and affordability. Another variation of instant noodles in the Philippines is the pancit canton or stir-fried noodles resembling the local pancit or pansit. The noodles are boiled and water is drained, then a flavoring powder with soy sauce, oil and bits of carrot and celery are added to it. Instant noodles have become a norm in Filipino daily life because of its affordability and taste.
Instant noodles began appearing on Polish store shelves during the early 90s. Despite being called "Chinese soup", the first brands on the market were produced in Vietnam and had a somewhat spicy, garlic-flavored taste. The noodle packages contained little pouches of flavored soup base, spicy oil, dried vegetables or even minuscule shrimps (shrimp-flavored varieties).
The product gained particular popularity among students due to its affordability and convenience. "Kaczkowa łagodna" (Mild duck), "Kurczakowa łagodna" (Mild chicken) and "Krewetkowa ostra" (Spicy shrimp) were the most common flavors in the early years. Today local (Kim Lan) and worldwide (Knorr) brands offer varieties ranging from fancy cheese-and-herb flavored noodles to local Polish specialties likebarszcz czerwony or żurek.
Ngoc Tu Tao, who emigrated to Poland from Vietnam and established the Tan-Viet Group in 1990, is credited with introducing instant noodles to Poland. Today his Vifon brand holds a 25% share of the Polish instant soup market, selling over 100 million packages a year. Ngoc Tu Tao has appeared in Wprost magazine's annual ranking of the 100 most wealthy Polish citizens.[
Inexpensive supermarket private-label brands and regular midmarket products do not differ much in taste, while prices can range from PLN 0.49 to PLN 2.00. Noodles in foam bowls are slightly more expensive, priced from PLN 3.00 to PLN 5.50.
Russia's most popular instant ramens are the local brand Rollton and Korean brand Dosirac (Korean for "lunch box"). They have been popular in the Far East since the late 1980s and made their way West in the early 90's. In Russia they are still considered a lesser quality choice to turn to in lean economic times, as are most macaroni/noodle products. They are a main choice for college students, but not as a regular meal replacement, only as a snack.
The most popular brand is Indomie. Indomie is the generic name for instant noodles in the region, and their brand has a 96% market share. Indomie is produced by Pinehill Arabia Food at two production plants at Jeddah and Dammam.
In South Korea, instant noodles are more common than non-instant ramen noodles, so the word ramyeon (라면), cognate with Japanese ramen,generally means the instant kind. Ramyeon is typically spicy. Shin Ramyun (신[辛], literally “spicy”) is the bestselling brand in Korea. It has also become popular in China and the United States. The leading manufacturer of ramyeon in Korea is the Nong Shim company, which exports many of its products overseas. In the 1960s, instant ramen was introduced to South Korea from Japan, and its quick and easy preparation, as well as its cheap price, made it soon catch on. Most South Korean food stalls make instant ramyeon and add toppings for their customers. Instant ramyeon also tends to be added to budae jjigae (literally “army base stew”), a stew made with assorted ingredients which was invented in the 1950s in the vicinity of U.S. military camps stationed in South Korea.
Taiwan, according to statistics from the International Ramen Manufacturers Association, is the world’s 12th largest instant noodle market, worth an annual NT$10 billion (US$300 million). This translates into an annual total of 900 million packs, or 40 per person
This is where the instant noodle inventor Momofuku Andō (安藤百福) was from. The most popular flavors in Taiwan are the beef noodle soup and minced pork noodle.
- Uni-President (aka President or Tong-Yi, 統一) takes the largest market share of instant noodles in the country, and is a major player in the global instant noodle market.
The most popular instant noodle in Thailand is “Mama” or dindin cup noodles, with Tom Yum Shrimp being the all time favorite flavor. There are a few local players in the market, namely “Mama” (Thai President Foods), “Wai Wai” and “Yum Yum”. Due to their ubiquity, instant noodles were chosen as a vehicle for dietary fortification by a joint effort of the Federation of Thai Industries, instant noodle producers, and the Ministry of Public Health about 10 years ago. The vitamins and minerals added are iron, iodine and vitamin A. Unlike Japanese or Malaysian instant noodles, Thai noodles are seasoned with chicken stock before frying, giving them extra flavor so that they are sometimes consumed directly as a snack without further cooking. Instant noodles have spread all over Thailand, and now include real dehydrated meat such as pork and beef.
Instant noodles have been quite popular in Ukraine in the past 10 years or so. Instant noodles come cheap and save time which makes it popular with most of the population. Mivina (located in Kharkiv, former food producer for cosmonauts) is the most popular instant noodles producer in the country. Mivina noodles could be cooked as soup or eaten dry. Dry instant noodles are as popular in Ukraine as potato chips and croutons. Rival instant noodles producer is Russian Rollton that also produces instant noodles for quick soups.
The most popular form of instant noodles in Britain is Pot Noodle (a cup noodle founded by Golden Wonder in the late-1970s). These are sold in virtually every major supermarket chain and groceries nationwide, as well as in convenience stores.
Packeted noodles such as Batchelors’ Super Noodles are also popular and synonymous with student life (some supermarket chains offering value noodles for less than 10p), and several of the larger supermarkets are also beginning to introduce some of the eastern brands such as Nissin, Koka noodles and Shin Ramyun, which once could only be found in Asian groceries. Noodles such as Maggi can also be found in many groceries, but are less widespread.
In the United States, the ubiquitous instant noodle product is known as ramen (after the Japanese dish on which it is based) and it comes in a variety of mostly meat-based flavors. Common flavors in the United States include chicken, pork, beef, mushroom, shrimp, and “oriental”. Other flavors like shoyu, miso, and kimchi are also available at supermarkets and convenience stores. The three major brands are Nissin Top Ramen,Maruchan Ramen, and Sapporo Ichiban. Ramen noodles are extremely popular among college students, due to their low cost and ease of preparation. Thailand’s “Mama” brand is also quite common and popular in the U.S. and Canada as well.
Vietnamese people eat a substantial amount of instant noodles in their diet, commonly as a breakfast food. Wheat and rice noodles are popular and common. Acecook Vietnam JSC is a leading producer of instant noodles. Another major producer of instant noodles is Vifon, which is also exported overseas, in particular, the U.S. and Canada. Various types of Vietnamese instant noodle soups include Oriental, Hu Tieu -flavored, Bun Bo Hue -flavored, Pho and Pho Ga, Hu Tieu Nam Vang (which is Phnom Penh styled Hu Tieu), and Da Nang crab soup.